Energy clean as pure water
Clean, Safe, Renewable
Waves are caused by the wind blowing over the surface of the ocean. In many areas of the world, the wind blows with enough consistency and force to provide continuous waves along the shoreline. Ocean waves contain tremendous energy potential. Wave power devices extract energy from the surface motion of ocean waves or from pressure fluctuations below the surface.
Wave energy is the strongest and most reliable renewable energy source available on earth. But even if waves are more continuous than sun or wind, there will always be days where the sea is calm. This is why the WEC works best in a hybrid grid, combined with storage backup and sun or wind.
The worldwide resource of wave energy has been estimated to be greater than 2 TW...
The first is the idea of Marine Renewable Energy (MRE), and is suggested by Howard P. Hanson of the Southeast National Marine Renewable Energy Center at Florida Atlantic University.
It involves making use of the vast amount of kinetic energy that exists in the ocean currents and waves. The US Department of Energy has established three national MRE centres to research the energy potential that the oceans offer, and push the advancement of the technologies needed for using MRE.
Hanson suggests that “the hydrokinetic energy of tidal and open-currents, as well as ocean waves, and the thermal potential of the oceanic stratification, can be recovered using ocean thermal conversion technology.”
The second technology can convert waste thermal energy directly into electricity.
Using recent advance in nanotechnology, infrared thermal radiation can be collected and converted into electricity using a ‘rectenna’.
Engineers at the University of South Florida's Clean Energy Resource Center mentioned that “converting waste heat to electrical energy can be a reality by using a rectenna, a combination of high frequency antenna and a tunnel diode.”
The rectenna can use waste heat energy that radiates from inefficient machines, or even take the infrared directly from the sun (over half of all the suns energy that hits the Earth is in the invisible, infrared spectru).
Sarath Witanachchi, Marek Merlak and Prasanna Mahawela, of the USF Department of Physics have developed new nanophosphor-based electroluminescence, which can create light with a wavelength that exactly matches the wavelength required by photosynthesis. This discovery makes it possible to grow crops indoors, away from the elements.
There are different forms of energy. These include kinetic, potential, thermal, gravitational, electromagnetic, sound, light and elastic. The form of energy is dependent on the frame of reference, and can be transformed into other forms. For instance potential energy is dependent on the position of the object, whereas kinetic energy is the energy required to accelerate an object to a particular speed, and so on.
Different forms of power could be electric power, which is the rate at which electrical energy is transferred by a circuit, human power, and optical power.
Although it is not possible to directly measure energy, the work done can be defined and measured. The methods involves using a calorimeter, which measures the heat absorbed or released in chemical reactions or physical changes, thermometer, which measures temperature or bolometer that is employed to measure the intensity of radiation. Energy generated can be stored whereas power cannot.
Since power is energy per unit of time, in theory it can be calculated after measuring the energy used per second. When calculating the real power consumption of an electrical device, it is essential to measure the voltage applied and the current consumed, taking into account the power that is dissipated in the circuit.
Nature is constantly changing, even before the dawn of humanity. From the breakup of Pangaea to the extinction of dinosaurs, from the Sahara Pump to the Ice Age, Earth has completely changed from what it was millions of years ago. Beyond these spontaneous events, initiated by Nature itself, Humans are continuously adapting the Planet to accommodate their needs through careless interaction with their surrounding environment.
Nature is not simply a warehouse of resources to serve human needs. Rather, it is a highly integrated, interdependent functioning system upon which all life forms, including the soil, water, plants, animals and humans depend for survival. In fact, Modern science has provided extensive empirical evidence which indicated that nature was a complex collection of water, air, soil, animal, plants and human beings. The components were sufficiently interdependent that the failure of one part of the system could undermine the productivity of other parts. As a result, it is necessary for us to treat the natural environment with love and respect because the failure of the system would ultimately threaten the subsistence of human beings.
The problems we are facing now are tough. However, the good news is that, you don’t have to be an expert or a millionaire to save the Planet - everyone can help to do their bit for the environment. In other words, if each of us can be more conscious of environmental issues and willing to take some simple steps to save the Planet, we can make a huge contribution.
Nowadays, with increasing environmental awareness among the public, people around the world are coming together to fight for a greener future, and the effort has achieved great results.
Green energy comes from natural sources such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, plants, algae and geothermal heat. These energy resources are renewable, meaning they're naturally replenished. In contrast, fossil fuels are a finite resource that take millions of years to develop and will continue to diminish with use.
Renewable energy sources also have a much smaller impact on the environment than fossil fuels, which produce pollutants such as greenhouse gases as a by-product, contributing to climate change. Gaining access to fossil fuels typically requires either mining or drilling deep into the earth, often in ecologically sensitive locations.
Green energy, however, utilizes energy sources that are readily available all over the world, including in rural and remote areas that don't otherwise have access to electricity. Advances in renewable energy technologies have lowered the cost of solar panels, wind turbines and other sources of green energy, placing the ability to produce electricity in the hands of the people rather than those of oil, gas, coal and utility companies.
Green energy can replace fossil fuels in all major areas of use including electricity, water and space heating and fuel for motor vehicles.
The source of energy, which is constantly self-renewing and transported by waves, is on the surface of the World Ocean. This energy is used for various purposes, for example, water desalination, pumping it over purification tanks, or generate of electricity. Together, the wave energy is the sum of the wind energy, the sun, and the moon attraction. The power of such waves is estimated in kilowatts per running meter - kW/m. Accordingly, the power that can give all the terrestrial oceans can not exceed the power received from the Sun. Comparing solar and wind energy with wave energy, scientists note that the latter has a higher specific power. Therefore, power generators that will operate on wave energy will also be more powerful than other sources.
The grandiose nature of the kinetic energy that a wave can give is so high, that the disruptions demonstrated by such elements as tsunamis or floods are simply terrible.
To imagine the power of 35 thousand hp (horse power), a meter wave will hit on about a mile of the coastal section with a frequency of 10 seconds. A period of time is called a wave period, during which two successive ridges pass a stable one point.
The waves power on the surface of the seas and oceans, like any other energy, can be used for useful work, including for the operation of a power plants. According to experts, waves of the World Ocean can satisfy from 20% of the energy needs of mankind.
Wave energy is presented to researchers as no less serious direction of alternative energy. By the boldest estimates, the waves generate about 2 TW of energy, which is twice the total volume of energy production in the world at present. The attractiveness of waves using is primarily in their high specific power, which in its level exceeds the parameters of solar and wind energy. In conditions of 10-meter wave height, the specific power reaches 2 MW per running meter.
The sea wave energy wave is a huge resource of free energy. This can be judged by using reference data. Power of 1 m of the sea-wave front in the Pacific Ocean at an average wave height of 1.25 m, reaches up to 75 kW / m. As you approach the shore and a decrease in depth, the power of the wave decreases (Table 1).
|Depth, m||44||20 - 25||15|
|Distance from the shore, km||20||6||4|
|Wave power, kW/h||48||32||17|
If in a simple way, a floating log, about 1 meter long gets up to 10 kW of sea energy. For comparison, in order to obtain the same power from the SH, at a wind speed 6 m/s will need a windmill with a diameter of 10 m. The difference between a piece of a log and a wind wheel is quite large not only in size, but also in value. Of course, for an individual consumer to install a seawater generator for himself, this is a rather complicated task.
However, for a small settlement, a farm or a recreation center, this task is quite feasible. From one meter of the coastal strip a couple of kilowatts of electricity can be fully produced. The most expensive in the sea wave generators is the foundation work. If the generators are built into coastal rocks or coastal structures (piers, breakwaters), then no foundation will be needed at all and the costs will be drastically reduced. At the same time, it is even possible to receive electricity at 4-5 cents per 1 kW/h. It should be noted that the market of marine generators is almost empty and represents the widest field of activity for its development. The energy of the ocean is not limited only to wave energy, the ocean has more tidal energy, energy of streams and some other types of energy.
The rapid progress in the development of renewable energy technologies and the resulting cost savings offer unprecedented opportunities for the electrification of developing countries through decentralized generation and the creation of mini power grids.
The opportunities, that this opens up for "win-win" scenarios sustainable development in social and environmental areas is another reason for the increased attention to energy issues in recent years.
At the same time, recent research and often ignored the third potential "gain" - economic advantages of expanding access to modern energy sources.
It is based on the principle of indivisibility and interdependence of the three main directions of sustainable development; but to achieve main goal - eradicating poverty - requires a consistent and an integrated approach covering all three areas. Exactly, this underlies the approach to eradicating poverty through sustainable and inclusive structural transformation.
Economic "gain" from providing access to modern sources of energy lies in the potential contribution to the structural transformation of the economy, increasing productivity and the formation of new opportunities for the development of those areas economic activity, where more added cost. All this is extremely important in order to fully disclose the potential for achieving broader goals.
For this, first of all, electricity to meet not only basic household needs, for example in lighting, but also production at that time. The same time without the use of electricity in production it is difficult to achieve a return on investment in its generation and distribution. To ensure that high capital costs are paid back yourself, you need a certain level of demand; and the use of electricity for production purposes can lead to increased demand on it both directly, and through an increase in domestic demand as a result of increase in incomes.
All these principles are most applicable to the developing countries of the African continent, constantly experiencing an acute shortage of electricity.